Journal Publication


Title: Is an enterprise framework necessary for an entrepreneurial university? A Comparison Of Technology Start-ups In Singapore And Sweden.
 
Abstract: Applying information from a series of university technology start-ups, this study discovered that in Singapore, the enterprise framework adds value in fundraising, reputation enhancement and developing linkages with government and industry. Our Swedish counterparts would seek direct assistance without an embedded enterprise system.
 
Publication: Science and Public Policy 35(9): 647-656 (December 2008)
 
Authors: Leong, B.L., Wee, A.K.S. and Ho, Y.P.


Title: Is an enterprise framework necessary for an entrepreneurial university? A Comparison Of Technology Start-ups In Singapore And Sweden.
 
Abstract: Applying information from a series of university technology start-ups, this study discovered that in Singapore, the enterprise framework adds value in fundraising, reputation enhancement and developing linkages with government and industry. Our Swedish counterparts would seek direct assistance without an embedded enterprise system.
 
Publication: Science and Public Policy 35(9): 647-656 (December 2008)
 
Authors: Leong, B.L., Wee, A.K.S. and Ho, Y.P.


Title: The Impact Of R&D On The Singapore Economy: An Empirical Evaluation.
                                           
Abstract: This paper provides empirical estimates of the impact of R&D on economic growth in Singapore. The Cobb-Douglas based analysis found empirical evidence that R&D investment had a significant impact on total factor productivity performance in the last 20 years and established a long-term equilibrium relationship between R&D investments and TFP. However, compared to OECD countries, the impact of R&D on growth in Singapore is not as strong.
 
Publication: The Singapore Economic Review, 54(1): 1-20 (2009)
 
Authors: Ho, Y.P., Wong, P.K. and Toh, M.H.


Title:  University Patenting Activities And Their Link To The Quantity And Quality Of Scientific Publications.
                                          
Abstract: Integrating data from three independent data sources – USPTO patenting data, Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) and the Times Higher Education Supplement’s World University Ranking (WUR), this paper examines the possible link between patenting output and the quantity and quality of scientific publications among 281 leading universities world-wide.
 
Publication: Scientometrics vol 83 no 1 (April 2010)

Authors: Wong, P.K. and Singh, A.


Title: The Role of Universities in the National Innovation Systems of China and the East Asian NIEs: An Exploratory Analysis of Publications and Patenting Data
                                                    
Abstract: The Triple Helix model highlights the "third mission" of universities to engage in IP (intellectual property) creation and technology transfer activities further downstream. This paper uses publications data and US patent data to examine the role played by leading research-intensive universities in the national innovation systems of the emerging economy of China and the newly industrialised economies (NIE) of Singapore, Hong Kong, Korea and Taiwan. Our analysis highlights significant differences amongst these five East Asian economies, and also reveals contrasts to observed patterns in the US and Europe.
 
Publication: Asian Journal of Technology Innovation, 23, no. 2 (2015): 140-156
 
Authors: Singh, A., Wong, P. K., and Ho, Y. P.


Title: When Does Investment in Political Ties Improve Firm Performance? The Contingent Effect of Innovation Activities
                                                    
Abstract: We study how the value of investing managerial time to cultivate political ties with local government officials may vary when firms engage in different types of technological innovation activities. We hypothesize that when a firm pursues exploratory innovation involving high institutional uncertainty, such time investment will improve firm performance. In contrast, when a firm undertakes exploitative innovation that involves low institutional uncertainty but requires high internal operational improvement such as marketing and sales, such time investment in political ties would distract managers’ attention from internal improvement, and hence may harm firm performance. Our findings offer fresh insights on how firm managers in emerging economies should manage their institutional environment when pursuing innovation activities.
 
Publication: Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol 31 No. 5 (Dec 2014), p 1-25
 
Authors: Zhang, J., J. Tan and P.K. Wong


Conference Presentations & Working Papers


Title: Do Co-publications With Industry Lead To Higher University Technology Commercialisation Activities?
 
Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between university-industry R&D collaboration and university technology commercialisation by investigating the extent to which the latter may be influenced by the involvement of the universities in research collaboration with industry, as evidenced by their propensity to generate co-publications with industry.
 
Authors: Wong, P.K. and Singh, A.A.
 
Publication: Presented at the 2011 International Technology Management Conference, California, June 2011


Title: Entrepreneurial Firm Formation And Income Inequality In Nations: A Cross-Economy Analysis
 
Abstract: While the contribution of entrepreneurship to economic growth has been well researched in recent years, its effect on income distribution has been less well-studied.  This paper examines the cross-sectional relationship between different measures of national entrepreneurial propensity and national income inequality, using recently-released datasets from UNU/WIDER, GEM and World Bank.  The findings unify the conflicting results for developing and advanced economies in the prior literature, and have clear implications for development policies.
 
Publication: Presented at the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Research Consortium (GERC) Conference, London, October 2010, submitted to Small Business Economics Journal.
 
Authors: Wong, P.K. and Ho, Y.P.


Title: Exploratory and Exploitative Innovation, Institutional Capital, and Firm Performance - The Evidence from China
 
Abstract: While the contribution of entrepreneurship to economic growth has been well researched in recent years, its effect on income distribution has been less well-studied.  This paper examines the cross-sectional relationship between different measures of national entrepreneurial propensity and national income inequality, using recently-released datasets from UNU/WIDER, GEM and World Bank.  The findings unify the conflicting results for developing and advanced economies in the prior literature, and have clear implications for development policies.
 
Publication: Presented at the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Research Consortium (GERC) Conference, London, October 2010, submitted to Small Business Economics Journal.
 
Authors: Wong, P.K. and Ho, Y.P.


Title: Home-Base-Exploiting vs Home-Base-Augmenting Strategies Of Foreign R&D By US Electronics Firms
 
Abstract: This exploratory paper uses US patents to investigate the R&D locational strategies of the top patenting US electronics companies over 1976-2005, with a focus on non-Japan Asia.
 
Our analysis suggests that home-base-exploiting R&D remains the dominant R&D strategy for US electronics firms in Asia, but there is a trend towards more home-base-augmenting R&D in Korea and Taiwan in recent years. Policy implications for the host economies in Asia are discussed.
 
Publication: Invited for submission to the special issue of IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management on “Hybrid innovation management and global corporations.”
 
Authors: Wong, P.K. and Singh, A.


Title: Knowledge Flows of Innovation in Small Open Economies – Comparative Analysis of Ireland and Singapore
                                                    
Abstract: This paper uses patents data to investigate the sources of knowledge for innovation output in two small and highly open economies, namely Ireland and Singapore.  The growth of both these economies and their national innovation systems have depended significantly on foreign multinational corporations (MNCs).  Our focus is on the pattern of knowledge sources for Irish and Singaporean organizations and how this has changed over time.
 
Publication: Paper presented at the Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference, November 3-4, London.
 
Authors: Dundas-Hewitt, N., Singh, A.A., Ho, Y.P. and Wong, P.K. (2010)
 


Title: Social Capital and Social Enclave: Asian Venture Capitalists in Silicon Valley
                                                    
Abstract: We examine the dilemma of ethnic investors in relying on ethnic network ties to invest by using a conceptualization of the “ethnic enclave” concept that distinguishes two dimensions: social network and social status. Our analysis of the first round of venture capital funding in Silicon Valley 1976–2004 shows a higher likelihood of Asian venture capitalists (VCs) investing in Asian-led ventures than mainstream VCs. In addition, the valuation of their investments in mainstream ventures is higher than those by mainstream VCs in such ventures. In contrast, this premium paying effect is not observed when mainstream VCs invest in Asian ventures. These asymmetrical findings suggest Asian VCs pay a premium to compete in the mainstream venture market due to their lower social status rather than social network disadvantages. By disentangling the effect of social network and social status, this study offers important theoretical contributions to the general entrepreneurship literature beyond ethnic entrepreneurship.
 
Publication: Paper conditionally accepted for publication in Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal. A previous version was presented as the AOM Conference 2013.
 
Authors: Zhang, J., Wong, P.K. and Ho, Y.P


Title: The Link between Co-Publications with Industry and Patenting Output of Academics: Evidence from the National University of Singapore
                                                    
Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between university-industry co-publication propensity of academics and their technology commercialisation output, using analysis on Engineering faculty members at a university in Singapore.
 
Publication: Working paper. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the STI/ENID 2014 Conference, Leiden, the Netherlands, September 2014
 
Authors: Wong, P. K. and Singh, A.


Title: Research Orientation and University-Industry Linkages: An exploratory study of researchers at the National University of Singapore
                                                    
Abstract: This paper examines the link between University-Industry Linkages (UIL) and the research orientation of individual researchers, contributing a new perspective to studies on UIL propensity.
 
Publication: Presented at the 13th International Triple Helix Conference, Beijing, August 2015
 
Authors: Ng, S.J.C., Ho, Y.P. and Wong, P.K.


Title: University Entrepreneurship Education Programs and the Antecedents of Entrepreneurship Intention in Students
                                                    
Abstract: This paper investigates empirically the influence of entrepreneurship education programs (EEPs) on the association between antecedents of intention as put forth by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and students' level of entrepreneurial intention, with a particular focus on the distinction between traditional classroom-based and experiential education
 
Publication: Paper accepted and due to be presented at the DRUID-Asia Inaugural Conference, Singapore, February 2016
 
Authors: Ho, Y.P., Ng, S.J.C., Low, P.C. and Wong, P.K.


Title: Analysing Patents Portfolios to Evaluate the Strategic Priorities of Research Organizations
                                                    
Abstract: This paper proposes a framework which uses patent indicators to evaluate the strategic priorities of research-oriented organisations, allowing for comparisons across different organisations and time periods.
 
Publication: Presented at the STI/ENID 2014 Conference, Leiden, the Netherlands, September 2014, currently under revision for journal submission
 
Authors: Wong, P.K. and Ho, Y.P.


Title: Technology-Sourcing Portfolio, Product Innovation Strategy, and New Venture Performance
                                                    
Abstract: Despite increasing attention to the issue of technology-sourcing, few studies examine how technology-sourcing portfolio influences new venture performance. Drawing upon the resource-based view and contingency theory, this study examines the effect of technology-sourcing mode diversity on new venture performance as well as investigates how product exploitation and product exploration strategy moderate their relationship. By using the survey data from 276 high-tech new ventures in Singapore, the results show that technology-sourcing mode diversity and product exploitation strategy have significantly positive relationships with new venture performance. In addition, the results of this study also indicate that product exploitation strategy strengthens the link between technology-sourcing mode diversity and new venture performance, whereas product exploration strategy weakens this relationship. This study provides important theoretical and managerial implications for technology-sourcing and new venture management.
 
Publication: Presented at the 2014 Academy of Management Conference, and submitted to Journal of Small Business Management.
 
Authors: Lin, Y.H., Wong, P.K. and Ho, Y.P.


Title: Technology Upgrading of Enterprises through a Manpower Secondment Strategy – A Study of Singapore's T-Up Program
                                                    
Abstract: This paper outlines a scheme that uses manpower from public research institutes to assist the technology upgrading of Small-and-Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The Growing Enterprises through Technology Upgrading (GET-Up) initiative has been successfully implemented in Singapore since 2003. The key program in the initiative is a manpower secondment scheme known as T-Up. We propose that T-Up represents a new approach to technology transfer which additionally maximizes the industrial impact of public sector research. Instead of traditional technology transfer modes which are transactions-based, T-Up utilises skills and human resource transfer through secondment of public sector researchers. Findings from surveys show that the T-Up secondment program has positive impact on the technological capabilities, innovation performance and growth of participating companies. Additionally, selected case studies highlight that this approach addresses a wide range of challenges faced by local SMEs and is flexible enough to cater to specific needs and requirements.
 
Publication: Paper submitted to Technovation. A revised version was presented at the 13th International Triple Helix Conference, Beijing, August 2015
 
Authors: Ho, Y.P. Hang, C.C., Wong, P.K. and Ruan, Y.


Title: The impact of R&D on the Singapore economy: A time series analysis
                                                    
Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of R&D on economic performance in Singapore from 1978 to 2012 through the use of time series analysis. The Cobb-Douglas based analysis establishes a long-run equilibrium relationship between Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and R&D investments. We found that short-run productivity of R&D in Singapore is comparable to the smaller advanced economics in the OECD. However, in terms of long-run R&D productivity, Singapore lags slightly behind the smaller OECD nations and far behind the G7 countries. This suggests leakage of value capture and low absorptive capacity in local firms. Possibility of productivity improvements induced by policy changes in the 1990s was considered but no evidence of significant structural breaks was found. Lastly, Granger-causality analysis reveals that public sector R&D augments private sector R&D capital, thus playing an important role in generating externalities and spillover effects. Policy implications and lessons for other middle-income countries are discussed.
 
Publication: Paper presented at the 3rd Asian Think Tank Network Forum, September 2015, Malaysia.
 
Authors: Ho, Y.P. and Wong, P.K.


Project Report & Other Publications


Title: Industrial Cluster Development And Innovation In Singapore.
 
Abstract: Two emerging technology clusters in Singapore, the biomedical cluster and the off-shore engineering cluster, are studied here. The contrasting strategic approaches in the two clusters highlight key challenges and relevant policy implications for promoting university-industry linkages at different stages of industry development.
 
Publication: M. Tsuji and A Kuchiki (eds), From Agglomeration to Innovation: Upgrading Industrial Clusters in Emerging Economies. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan (December 2009)
 
Authors: Wong, P.K., Ho, Y.P. and Singh, A.A.


Title: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Singapore Reports 2001-2006
 
Abstract: These reports present the findings of the GEM Singapore project conducted by NUS Enterprise between 2001 and 2006.
 
Publication: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor website
 
Authors: Wong, P.K., Lee, L., Ho Y.P. and Wong, F.
 
Download link: http://www.gemconsortium.org/files.aspx?Ca_ID=124


Title: Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey (GUESSS) 2008 Singapore Report & Presentation
 
Abstract: This report presents the key findings from a survey of students in Singapore IHLs, part of an international benchmarking study on students’ entrepreneurial spirit, involving 19 countries in 2008. A total of 2,319 students from all three public universities and five polytechnics participated in the 2008 Singapore survey.
 
Publication: Project report published by NUS Entrepreneurship Centre.
 
Authors: Lee, L., Ho, Y.P and Wong, P.K. (2010).
 
Downloadable files: GUESSS Report 2008 and GUESSS Presentation 2008


Title: Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (GUESSS) 2011 Singapore Report & Presentation
                                                    
Abstract: This report presents the key findings from a 2011 survey of students in Singapore IHLs, part of the GUESSS international benchmarking study on students’ entrepreneurial spirit, involving 26 countries in 2011. A total of 3,133 students from all three public universities and five polytechnics participated in the Singapore survey.
 
Publication: Project report published by NUS Entrepreneurship Centre.
 
Authors: Ho, Y.P, Wong, P.K. and Low P.C. (2012).
 
Downloadable file: GUESSS Report 2011 and GUESSS Presentation 2011


Title: Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (GUESSS) 2013/14 Singapore
                                                    
Abstract: Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students’ Survey (GUESSS) is a global biennial research project focused on understanding the entrepreneurial attitudes, intentions, and activities of students at institutes of higher learning (IHLs). The 2013/2014 edition of GUESSS garnered responses from 109,026 students from 759 universities in 34 countries. The NUS Entrepreneurship Centre (NEC) was once again invited to lead and coordinate the 2013/2014 GUESSS study for all tertiary institutions in Singapore, with co-funding support from ACE. In Singapore, a total of 6,471 students from the 3 public universities and 5 polytechnics were successfully surveyed. The Singapore report highlights the relevance of IHLs in nurturing entrepreneurship in the student population.
 
Publication: Project report published by NUS Entrepreneurship Centre.
 
Authors: Ho, Y.P., Wong, P.K. and Ng, C.
 
Downloadable file: GUESSS Report 2013/2014